Sunday 28 MAY 2017
 

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National Daily Weather Summary


Records set | Charts | Cities | Hottest | Coldest | Rain, sun & wind | Downpours & gales
State extremes | Noteworthy weather | Capital Cities | Regional Cities | Alpine Stations
Charts and data courtesy Bureau of Meteorology. MTSAT-1R operated by JMA
Noteworthy weather today
significant newsworthy major

The graphics and statistical information on this page fill gradually as they become available, with some not available until the next day. The page is updated every 30 minutes at about 20 and 50 minutes past the hour.

For weather news as it breaks that is tagged and organised, use the links on the Weather and Climate Media Reports page.

Sunday 28 May 2017

 Major front gives NZ snow, severe gales and high seas

Saturday 20 May saw a major cold front sweep across New Zealand bringing snow to low levels, and severe gales and high seas that peaked at 11.4m in Cook Strait.

Snow settled as low as 100m above sea level in Dunedin, and NZ Metservice reported it was deep enough to close parts of the main State Highways 1, 85 and 87 to the north, and gave 12cm snow cover at Kingston, south of Queenstown. Much deeper snow fell in the high country in the South Island Alps. On the North Island, there was a dusting of snow on the hills from Wellington to the Bay of Plenty and motorists were trapped by snow and ice on the Desert Road which gets to 1,000m SW of Taupo [Radio NZ]. Icy roads caused problems over much of the country for a few days following the change as temperatures fell well below -5° [Radio NZ]. MetService put together this montage of the country's first major snow event of 2017.

A large swell developed behind the change, driven by severe gales across the huge fetch of the Southern Ocean. A pulse of swells averaging over 6.5m pushed up the east coast of both islands on 21 May. MetService, in its Blog, said "A wave buoy in the Cook Strait has been recording average wave heights of five to six metres, with a peak wave early this morning of 11.4 metres." Not surprisingly, inter-island ferry sailings were cancelled [Radio NZ].

 Monster wave one of largest recorded in southern hemisphere
Updated 31/5/17: substantial information added in paragraphs 4 to 6

The system that brought gales and snow to NZ also produced a monster 19.4m wave at the southern-most wave-measuring buoy in the Southern Ocean, moored in 150m of water 11km S of Campbell Island or 700km S of Invercargill.

The buoy, which was put in service in February by MetOcean Solutions, is designed to collect observations from an area lacking in hard data. MetOcean's Senior Oceanographer Dr Tom Durrant said "During the depths of winter, Southern Ocean waves are enormous, with significant wave heights averaging over 5m, and regularly exceeding 10m. Individual waves can double that size. Accurate measurements of these conditions will help us understand waves and air-sea interactions in these extreme conditions. This, in turn, will lead to improvements in the models used to simulate the waves, providing better forecasts, both for the Southern Ocean and for the wider region."

It's important to note the difference between "highest wave" and "highest significant wave height". Oceanographers describe highest significant wave height as the highest third of waves over a period of time. This is sometimes described as the highest averaged over 15 or 20 passing waves. A highest wave is simply the highest wave of all waves, which may be the highest within the significant wave period or a rogue wave that is far larger than would normally be expected in a normal distribution of waves.

While rogue or freak waves of phenomenal size have been reported for centuries (or not reported, as the crew didn't live to tell the tale), it has only been since two events, in 1995 and 2000, that science has begun to take them seriously. In 1995, what has come to be known as the Draupner Wave was the first rogue wave to be recorded scientifically as it passed the Draupner E oil platform 160km WSW of the southern tip of Norway in the North Sea. The platform was constructed to withstand what was considered to be the 1 in 10,000-year wave of 19.5m and had been fitted with state-of-the-art instrumentation. The isolated Draupner Wave was measured at 25.9m soon after 15.00 on 1 January 1995, fortunately only causing minor damage.

In 2000, the British oceanographic vessel RRS Discovery, fully kitted out with high quality instruments, was battling high seas near Rockall, off the west coast of Scotland, in a severe gale averaging 75km/h. Its wave recorder measured individual waves up to 29.1m from trough to crest with a significant wave height (i.e. highest third) of 18.5m. While not theoretically a rogue wave, it proved that waves existed that were much higher than models at the time predicted based on a normal distribution of wave heights. It also began the rewriting of oceanographic textbooks which up to that time had ignored rogue or freak waves completely. Further evidence of their frequency came in 2004 when the ESA MaxWave project identified over ten giant waves over 25 metres in just three weeks in a limited area of the South Atlantic.

Satellite wave studies now tell us that waves between 20 and 30 metres happen much more often than previously thought. Professor Akhmediev of the Australian National University, one of the world's leading researchers in this field, says there are about 10 rogue waves in the world's oceans at any moment with some researchers believing about 3 of every 10,000 waves could be classified as rogue or freak, with that number rising to 3 in every 1,000 in coastal inlets where energy is focussed. Something to think about next time you go rock fishing.

This Wikipedia article on Rogue waves has riveting reading on the history, current knowledge and research on one of the least known, most dangerous yet not uncommon aspects of the ocean.

Here's the relevant MetOcean Blog and, to appreciate the size and power of the size of waves we're talking about, look at this Royal New Zealand Navy video on Radio New Zealand, and these are relative wimps compared to a 29-metre one. The World Meteorological Organisation maintains a list of highest significant wave heights on record globally - go to the bottom and click the "Phenomena characteristics" for more information on each one. And this BBC article has some information on high individual waves, and that other breeding ground of mighty seas, the North Atlantic.


Records set or equalled today

These records are based on data that has been checked for gross errors but has not yet been fully validated. They are based on data received as at 1403 EST on 29/05/2017. Help in interpreting these statistics and information on quality control is here.

District Site Today Previous monthly record Previous all time record
if equalled or broken
Comments
Reading Reading Date Years Reading Date Years
Highest wind gust (km/h)

NSW

NW Plains E

053115

MOREE AERO

76

76.0

17/05/2008

19

N Equal to record.


The day in charts
Surface charts Satellite images Rain & temperatures
4am EST Rainfall -- 24 hours to 9am

Week to 9am | SE AUS detail
10am EST Minimum temperature anomalies

See actual temperatures
4pm EST Maximum temperature anomalies

See actual temperatures
10pm EST Solar Radiation

Summary of observations

For notes on how to interpret the data and quality control issues, see Daily Weather Summary Help.
**S** and **W** precede data flagged by the Bureau as suspicious or wrong
Data is as received at 14:03EST, 29/05/2017.

Major centres
Max
° C
+/- norm
° C
Min
° C
+/- norm
° C
Grass Min
° C
Rain to 9am mm Evaporation to 9am mm Sunshine hours Wind Run to 9am km (24-hour average km/h) Maximum Gust km/h / hour of occurrence
PERTH AIRPORT 19.5 -2.3 4.7 -5.7 3.4 0.0 2.2 9.2 227 ( 9.5) 30/09
BUNBURY 18.1 -3.1 3.6 -5.7 -- 0.0 -- -- 146 ( 6.1) 22/14
MANDURAH 19.4 -1.9 9.3 -4.3 -- 0.0 -- -- 202 ( 8.4) 21/14
DARWIN AIRPORT 32.2 +0.2 22.4 +0.3 21.4 0.0 8.0 6.3 315 (13.1) 39/11
ALICE SPRINGS AIRPORT 25.5 +2.5 6.3 -1.9 -- 0.0 -- -- -- --
WHYALLA AERO 18.8 -1.6 7.4 -1.3 -- 0.0 -- -- 472 (19.7) 44/11
ADELAIDE (KENT TOWN) 15.1 -3.8 9.5 -0.7 -- 16.6 -- -- 285 (11.9) 50/03
MOUNT GAMBIER AERO 12.1 -4.0 6.3 -1.0 -- 14.6 -- -- 423 (17.6) 55/14
MOUNT ISA AERO 30.8 +3.0 8.7 -5.1 -- 0.0 -- -- 223 ( 9.3) 39/15
CAIRNS AERO 28.4 +0.8 20.0 +0.1 -- 0.0 -- -- 439 (18.3) 39/12
TOWNSVILLE AERO 27.3 -0.3 17.2 -0.4 -- 0.0 -- -- 201 ( 8.4) 30/15
MACKAY M.O 24.9 +0.7 17.1 0.0 -- 0.0 -- -- 314 (13.1) 26/11
ROCKHAMPTON AERO 27.5 +1.5 14.0 -0.1 -- 0.0 -- -- 176 ( 7.3) 17/10
BUNDABERG AERO 26.1 +1.5 13.6 -0.5 -- 0.2 -- -- 285 (11.9) 24/13
COOLANGATTA 25.0 +1.9 12.5 -1.6 -- 0.0 -- -- 190 ( 7.9) 34/15
BRISBANE AERO 23.6 +0.1 12.9 +0.1 10.4 0.2 2.4 9.7 221 ( 9.2) 31/20
TOOWOOMBA AIRPORT 21.3 +1.5 11.4 +1.6 -- 0.0 -- -- 376 (15.7) 46/17
GUNNEDAH RESOURCE CENTRE 20.8 +0.5 11.5 +2.8 8.4 0.6 1.6 -- -- --
PORT MACQUARIE AIRPORT AWS 21.3 -0.1 8.4 -2.0 -- 0.4 -- -- 159 ( 6.6) 26/14
WILLIAMTOWN RAAF 22.8 +2.5 6.6 -3.4 -- 0.2 -- -- 127 ( 5.3) 37/13
ORANGE AGRICULTURAL INSTITUTE -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
DUBBO AIRPORT AWS 22.9 +3.0 5.0 -1.5 -- 0.0 -- -- 245 (10.2) 46/14
SYDNEY AIRPORT AMO 24.6 +4.6 10.3 -0.6 7.7 0.0 2.4 8.4 294 (12.3) 50/11
RICHMOND RAAF 23.2 +2.7 5.6 -2.0 -- 0.0 -- -- 80 ( 3.3) 39/10
BELLAMBI AWS 22.1 +2.5 12.7 -0.3 -- 0.0 -- -- 247 (10.3) 46/17
CANBERRA AIRPORT 14.3 -- 0.0 -- -- 0.2 -- -- 175 ( 7.3) 61/14
WAGGA WAGGA AMO 15.4 -1.9 6.0 +0.2 -- 0.4 -- -- 220 ( 9.2) 48/14
ALBURY AIRPORT AWS 14.3 -3.3 9.0 +3.6 -- 7.0 -- -- 173 ( 7.2) 44/12
MILDURA AIRPORT 16.4 -2.6 8.4 +1.0 -- 3.6 3.6 6.2 362 (15.1) 41/13
TATURA INST SUSTAINABLE AG 13.5 -3.7 9.9 +4.2 -- 7.2 -- -- 375 (15.6) 68/01
BENDIGO AIRPORT 12.6 -4.0 8.5 +3.4 -- 6.0 -- -- 426 (17.8) 52/00
MELBOURNE AIRPORT 14.1 -2.5 8.8 +0.5 6.6 5.8 4.2 4.7 663 (27.6) 52/00
BALLARAT AERODROME 10.7 -2.9 3.7 -2.0 -- 20.6 -- -- 618 (25.8) 65/15
LAUNCESTON (TI TREE BEND) 14.3 -1.5 9.6 +4.6 -- 23.6 -- -- 372 (15.5) 43/00
HOBART AIRPORT 12.6 -2.6 6.3 -0.3 8.0 3.4 1.8 0.2 359 (15.0) 34/16
Max
° C
+/- norm
° C
Min
° C
+/- norm
° C
Grass Min
° C
Rain to 9am mm Evaporation to 9am mm Sunshine hours Wind Run to 9am km Maximum Gust km/h / hour of occurrence
Hottest
Highest maximum temperature>Greatest variation above normal maximum Highest minimum temperatureGreatest variation above normal minimum

35.0 OENPELLI AIRPORT N Rivers NT
35.0 FITZROY CROSSING AERO W Kimberley WA
34.8 WYNDHAM AERO N Kimberley WA
34.8 MANDORA E Pilbara WA
34.7 DOUGLAS RIVER N Rivers NT

+4.6 : 24.6 SYDNEY AIRPORT AMO Sydney--east NSW
+4.5 : 33.1 LEARMONTH AIRPORT W Pilbara WA
+4.3 : 23.7 SYDNEY (OBSERVATORY HILL) Sydney--east NSW

28.0 BROWSE ISLAND Islands ISL
27.0 COCOS ISLAND NTC AWS Islands ISL
26.5 CAPE WESSEL Islands ISL
26.5 COCOS ISLAND AIRPORT Islands ISL
26.2 MCCLUER ISLAND N Rivers NT

+8.5 : 15.5 MITCHELL POST OFFICE Maranoa QLD
+7.0 : 15.6 ST GEORGE AIRPORT Maranoa QLD
+6.3 : 9.1 FINGAL (LEGGE STREET) E Coast TAS
+6.0 : 14.8 SURAT Maranoa QLD
+5.7 : 14.0 COLLARENEBRI (ALBERT ST) Upper Darling NSW

Coldest
Lowest maximum temperatureGreatest variation below normal maximum Lowest minimum temperatureGreatest variation below normal minimum

-0.3 MOUNT HOTHAM Upper NE VIC
0.0 THREDBO AWS Snowy Mtns NSW
0.1 MOUNT BULLER Upper NE VIC
0.1 MOUNT BAW BAW W Gippsland VIC
0.2 FALLS CREEK Upper NE VIC

-9.3 : 17.9 NEWMAN AERO E Gascoyne WA
-6.8 : 17.0 WILUNA Interior WA
-6.6 : 14.5 NORSEMAN AERO Goldfields WA
-6.4 : 0.1 MOUNT BAW BAW W Gippsland VIC
-6.2 : 0.1 MOUNT BULLER Upper NE VIC

-0.8 COOMA VISITORS CENTRE Goulburn/Monaro NSW
-0.7 MOUNT HOTHAM Upper NE VIC
-0.5 GOULBURN AIRPORT AWS Goulburn/Monaro NSW
-0.4 BATHURST AGRICULTURAL STATION C Tablelands S NSW
-0.3 MOUNT BAW BAW W Gippsland VIC

-7.9 : 1.6 PAYNES FIND E Gascoyne WA
-7.8 : 4.0 JURIEN BAY Lower West WA
-7.5 : 0.9 CUNDERDIN AIRFIELD Cent Wheatbelt WA
-7.1 : 3.8 PEARCE RAAF Lower West WA
-6.6 : 3.5 DALWALLINU Central West WA

Wettest
Sunniest & dullest
Windiest
Highest gusts
Todays highest rainfall totals for the 24 hours to 9am. It includes the top 5 totals nationally followed by all reported falls of 50mm or more.
Highest and lowest recordings of hours of sunshine for the 24 hours to midnight.
Highest wind run totals in kilometres for the 24 hours to 9am (average speed in brackets). All reported runs > =25km/h are shown.
Highest wind gusts in km/h for the 24 hours to midnight followed by the hour in which it occurred. All stations with gusts > 89km/h are shown.
42.6 DURDIDWARRAH W Central VIC
41.4 MOUNT READ W Coast TAS
35.0 LIAWENEE Central Plateau TAS
33.8 STRATHBRIDGE (MEANDER RIVER) N Coast TAS
33.6 ZEEHAN (WEST COAST PIONEERS MUSEUM) W Coast TAS

Reports not yet available

1228 (51.2) MOUNT HOTHAM Upper NE VIC
1195 (49.8) THREDBO AWS Snowy Mtns NSW
1136 (47.3) KUNANYI (MOUNT WELLINGTON PINNACLE) Southeast TAS
1127 (47.0) NEPTUNE ISLAND W Agricultural SA
977 (40.7) MOUNT BULLER Upper NE VIC
937 (39.0) CAPE GRIM BAPS (COMPARISON) N Coast TAS
924 (38.5) FALLS CREEK Upper NE VIC
915 (38.1) LOW HEAD N Coast TAS
881 (36.7) COLAC (MOUNT GELLIBRAND) W Coast VIC
866 (36.1) CAPE SORELL W Coast TAS
863 (36.0) CAPE WESSEL Islands ISL
848 (35.3) CAPE GRIM N Coast TAS
848 (35.3) MARIA ISLAND (POINT LESUEUR) E Coast TAS
846 (35.3) MOUNT READ W Coast TAS
840 (35.0) LARAPUNA (EDDYSTONE POINT) E Coast TAS
819 (34.1) LOW ROCKY POINT W Coast TAS
813 (33.9) MAATSUYKER ISLAND LIGHTHOUSE Southeast TAS
810 (33.8) MCCLUER ISLAND N Rivers NT
806 (33.6) WALLAN (KILMORE GAP) N Central VIC
793 (33.0) GRAMPIANS (MOUNT WILLIAM) Wimmera S VIC
791 (33.0) SWAN ISLAND E Coast TAS
786 (32.8) COCOS ISLAND AIRPORT Islands ISL
779 (32.5) WILLIS ISLAND Islands ISL
773 (32.2) TASMAN ISLAND Southeast TAS
773 (32.2) HOGAN ISLAND Islands ISL
757 (31.5) NORTH ISLAND Central West WA
731 (30.5) KING ISLAND AIRPORT King Island TAS
725 (30.2) CAPE BORDA Yorke Pen/Kanga Is SA
721 (30.0) DEVONPORT AIRPORT N Coast TAS
686 (28.6) STENHOUSE BAY Yorke Pen/Kanga Is SA
680 (28.3) CAPE JAFFA (THE LIMESTONE) Lower SE SA
680 (28.3) CAPE NELSON LIGHTHOUSE W Coast VIC
673 (28.0) ADELAIDE AIRPORT Adelaide/Lofty SA
668 (27.8) CAPE FLATTERY N Coast--Barron QLD
663 (27.6) MELBOURNE AIRPORT E Central VIC
658 (27.4) SCOTTS PEAK DAM W Coast TAS
653 (27.2) FRANKSTON AWS E Central VIC
649 (27.0) MOUNT CRAWFORD AWS Adelaide/Lofty SA
643 (26.8) SNOWTOWN (RAYVILLE PARK) Lower North SA
642 (26.8) CAPE OTWAY LIGHTHOUSE W Coast VIC
635 (26.5) LOW ISLES LIGHTHOUSE N Coast--Barron QLD
634 (26.4) MINLATON AERO Yorke Pen/Kanga Is SA
632 (26.3) TUNNACK FIRE STATION Southeast TAS
624 (26.0) LAUNCESTON AIRPORT N Coast TAS
623 (26.0) HARTZ MOUNTAIN (KEOGHS PIMPLE) Southeast TAS
621 (25.9) MOORABBIN AIRPORT E Central VIC
618 (25.8) EDINBURGH RAAF Adelaide/Lofty SA
618 (25.8) BALLARAT AERODROME Western Plains VIC
617 (25.7) WARRNAMBOOL AIRPORT NDB W Coast VIC
612 (25.5) RHYLL E Central VIC
602 (25.1) GREEN CAPE AWS South Coast NSW
113/05 THREDBO AWS Snowy Mtns NSW
100/02 MOUNT HOTHAM Upper NE VIC
96/04 MOUNT BULLER Upper NE VIC
85/03 HOGAN ISLAND Islands ISL
83/06 NEPTUNE ISLAND W Agricultural SA

Downpours High AWS wind reports
High rainfall for periods of 6 hours or less from AWS and synoptic reports.
IMPORTANT NOTE: Due to a programming error, downpours shown for WA, NT, SA, QLD and ISLANDS between 9 and 10am local times are wrong and should be ignored. The error will be corrected as soon as possible.
Storm force gusts (>89km/h) and 10-minute mean gales (>62km/h) reported by AWSs. Wind direction and mean windspeed are shown in brackets.
SOUTH AUSTRALIA
Yorke Pen/Kanga Is
EDITHBURGH
16.2mm in 30 min to 09:30 32.4mm/h
16.2mm in 1 hr to 09:30 16.2mm/h
Adelaide/Lofty
ADELAIDE AIRPORT
8.0mm in 12 min to 09:12 40.0mm/h
ADELAIDE (KENT TOWN)
16.6mm in 30 min to 09:30 33.2mm/h
16.6mm in 1 hr to 09:30 16.6mm/h
MOUNT LOFTY
22.6mm in 30 min to 09:30 45.2mm/h
22.6mm in 1 hr to 09:30 22.6mm/h
PARAWA (SECOND VALLEY FOREST AWS)
11.6mm in 30 min to 09:30 23.2mm/h
11.6mm in 1 hr to 09:30 11.6mm/h
KUITPO FOREST RESERVE
11.8mm in 4 min to 09:04 177.0mm/h
11.8mm in 1 hr to 09:30 11.8mm/h
Mallee/Upper SE
KEITH (MUNKORA)
16.4mm in 30 min to 09:30 32.8mm/h
16.4mm in 1 hr to 09:30 16.4mm/h
LAMEROO (AUSTIN PLAINS)
10.6mm in 30 min to 09:30 21.2mm/h
10.6mm in 1 hr to 09:30 10.6mm/h
Lower SE
MOUNT GAMBIER AERO
14.6mm in 30 min to 09:30 29.2mm/h
14.6mm in 1 hr to 09:30 14.6mm/h
NARACOORTE AERODROME
14.6mm in 30 min to 09:30 29.2mm/h
14.6mm in 1 hr to 09:30 14.6mm/h
PADTHAWAY SOUTH
23.6mm in 30 min to 09:30 47.2mm/h
23.6mm in 1 hr to 09:30 23.6mm/h
TASMANIA
N Coast
DEVONPORT AIRPORT
11.4mm in 1 hr to 05:30 11.4mm/h
16.0mm in 3 hr to 06:00 5.3mm/h

NEW SOUTH WALES
Snowy Mtns
THREDBO AWS : 106(330/ 91 ) at 03:46
VICTORIA
Upper NE
MOUNT BULLER : 95(360/ 46 ) at 04:54
MOUNT HOTHAM : 98(360/ 72 ) at 03:00
ISLANDS
Islands
HOGAN ISLAND : 85(280/ 67 ) at 03:32